Slurm is a highly configurable open source workload and resource manager. In its simplest configuration, Slurm can be installed and configured in a few minutes. Use of optional plugins provides the functionality needed to satisfy the needs of demanding HPC centers with diverse job types, policies and work flows. Advanced configurations use plug-ins to provide features like accounting, resource limit management, by user or bank account, and support for sophisticated scheduling algorithms.


Docker is used to run software packages called "containers". Containers are isolated from each other and bundle their own application, tools, libraries and configuration files; they can communicate with each other through well-defined channels. All containers are run by a single operating system kernel and are thus more lightweight than virtual machines. Containers are created from "images" that specify their precise contents. Images are often created by combining and modifying standard images downloaded from public repositories.


Singularity is a free, cross-platform and open-source computer program that performs operating-system-level virtualization also known as containerization. One of the main uses of Singularity is to bring containers and reproducibility to scientific computing and the high-performance computing (HPC) world. The need for reproducibility requires the ability to use containers to move applications from system to system. Using Singularity containers, developers can work in reproducible environments of their choosing and design, and these complete environments can easily be copied and executed on other platforms.


Kubernetes (commonly stylized as K8s) is an open-source container-orchestration system for automating deployment, scaling and management of containerized applications. It was originally designed by Google and is now maintained by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation. It aims to provide a "platform for automating deployment, scaling, and operations of application containers across clusters of hosts". It works with a range of container tools, including Docker, since its first release.